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International Journal of Molecular Sciences


Extrathyroidal extension (ETE) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an indication of disease progression and can influence treatment aggressiveness. This meta-analysis assesses the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in detecting ETE. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed by searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane for studies published up to April 2022. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated. The areas under the curve (AUC) for summary receiver operating curves were compared. A total of 11 studies analyzed ETE in 3795 patients with PTC. The sensitivity of ETE detection was 76% (95%CI = 74–78%). The specificity of ETE detection was 51% (95%CI = 49–54%). The DOR of detecting ETE by US was 5.32 (95%CI = 2.54–11.14). The AUC of ETE detection was determined to be 0.6874 ± 0.0841. We report an up-to-date analysis elucidating the diagnostic accuracy of ETE detection by US. Our work suggests the diagnostic accuracy of US in detecting ETE is adequate. Considering the importance of ETE detection on preoperative assessment, ancillary studies such as adjunct imaging studies and genetic testing should be considered.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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