Probiotic Limosilactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 Changes Foxp3 Deficiency-Induced Dyslipidemia and Chronic Hepatitis in Mice

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The probiotic Limosilactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 produces anti-inflammatory effects in scurfy (SF) mice, a model characterized by immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked inheritance (called IPEX syndrome in humans), caused by regulatory T cell (Treg) deficiency and is due to a Foxp3 gene mutation. Considering the pivotal role of lipids in autoimmune inflammatory processes, we investigated alterations in the relative abundance of lipid profiles in SF mice (± treatment with DSM 17938) compared to normal WT mice. We also examined the correlation between plasma lipids and gut microbiota and circulating inflammatory markers. We noted a significant upregulation of plasma lipids associated with autoimmune disease in SF mice, many of which were downregulated by DSM 17938. The upregulated lipids in SF mice demonstrated a significant correlation with gut bacteria known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases. Chronic hepatitis in SF livers responded to DSM 17938 treatment with a reduction in hepatic inflammation. Altered gene expression associated with lipid metabolism and the positive correlation between lipids and inflammatory cytokines together suggest that autoimmunity leads to dyslipidemia with impaired fatty acid oxidation in SF mice. Probiotics are presumed to contribute to the reduction of lipids by reducing inflammatory pathways.

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