What Factors Are Associated With Implant Failure?

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Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery


Purpose: Recognition of patient-specific risk factors should reduce implant failure. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with implant failure and to determine if these factors differ over time after implant placement. Methods: The investigators implemented a retrospective case-controlled study and enrolled a sample composed of patients who had 1 or more implants removed from December 1, 2007 to February 29, 2020. Risk factors were grouped into demographic, medical history, and treatment-related variables. The primary outcome variable was whether the patient's implant failed, with control patients including those without implant failure. The duration was recorded for follow-up from the time of implant placement to the last visit or implant removal. Backward variable selection was used to predict whether an implant failed within 1 year, 1 to 4 years, or after 4 years in 3 multivariable logistic regressions. Results: Of 224 patients in this cohort, 82 experienced an implant failure. The mean age was 58.6 ± 15.3 years, and 53.1% were females. Patients with osteoporosis had an increased risk of failure in each period. Alcohol use, smoking, depression, and penicillin allergy were all associated with an increased probability of failure within 1 or more of the periods considered. Conclusions: This study has identified multiple discrete risk factors for implant failure and has demonstrated that these factors are associated with implant failure at different periods after placement.

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