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Health, Interprofessional Practice & Education


Introduction: Although interprofessional education (IPE) experiences inherently include students from different academic programs working together, most quantitative IPE longitudinal research is analyzed at the all-student level or academic program level. There is a need to assess IPE outcomes at the team level.

Methods: Pre-licensure students participating in a two-year IPE curriculum were randomly assigned to 60 teams. Each student completed the Student Perceptions of Interprofessional Clinical Education Revised instrument, version 2 (SPICE-R2) using a retrospective pre/post-test design at the end of the first and second year. Boxplots of score changes for each of the teams were constructed. Differences in SPICE-R2 score changes over time (Year 1 to Year 2) across teams were examined using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA to understand potential interactions between the factors of team and time.

Results: Positive, negative, and neutral changes in team boxplot dispersion scores were noted. A two-way repeated measure ANOVA found a significant interaction of team and time for SPICE-R2 score changes (p-value = 0.041), which indicated score changes from Year 1 to Year 2 were dependent on individual student teams.

Discussion: Additional research is needed at the team level, as the goal of IPE is to develop learners to practice collaboratively on teams. Well-designed research using theory and/or frameworks and respective assessments are needed to advance the research in this area.

Implications for Practice

  • There is a need to explore the impact of IPE interventions at the team level.
  • Further research studying the bases of attitudes is needed to determine impact on IPE attitudes and behaviors.
  • Identifying specific theories and/or frameworks in the development of IPE activities can identify effective interventions to support positive attitudes needed for collaborative practice.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.