Effect of High-Risk Factors on Postoperative Major Adverse Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events Trends Following Bariatric Surgery in the United States from 2012 to 2019

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Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery


BACKGROUND: Recent examination of trends in postoperative major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACE) following bariatric surgery, including accredited and nonaccredited centers, and the factors affecting those trends, is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate current trends for postoperative MACE after bariatric surgery in both accredited and nonaccredited centers and the factors affecting these trends. SETTING: This retrospective study was conducted using National Inpatient Sample database from 2012 to 2019. METHODS: All patients who underwent inpatient laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), open sleeve gastrectomy (SG), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), and open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were examined. Composite MACE (acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, acute stroke, and in-hospital death during bariatric surgery hospitalization) was calculated and analyzed over time along with patient demographic and co-morbid diseases using survey-weighted logistic regression. RESULTS: MACE incidence was lowest for LSG (0.07%), followed by LRYGB (0.16%), SG (3.47%), and RYBG (3.51%). Open procedure, increasing age, male sex, body mass index ≥50, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and chronic kidney disease were independent predictors for increased MACE risk. MACE incidence increased over time for SG (odds ratio [OR] 1.25 [1.16, 1.34]; P < .0001) and RYGB (OR 1.14 [1.06, 1.22]; P = .0004) but decreased for LRYGB (OR 0.93 [0.87, 1] P = .06). After adjustment for high-risk covariates, increased MACE trend seen over time was attenuated in SG (OR 1.13 [1.04-1.22]; P = .005) and RYGB (OR 1.04 [0.96-1.12]; P = .36), while there was minimal effect of these high-risk covariates on MACE trend over time in LSG and LRYGB. CONCLUSIONS: MACE following LSG and LRYGB is rare, occurring in 0.1% of patients. Persistently increasing high-risk conditions and demographics has had minimal effect on MACE over time for LSG and LRYGB but has had significant effect on MACE trend over time in SG and RYGB.

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