Nephrotoxic Mushroom Poisoning: Global Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management
Wilderness and Environmental Medicine
Because mushroom poisonings are increasing worldwide after ingestions of known, newly described, and formerly considered edible species, the objectives of this review are to describe the global epidemiology of nephrotoxic mushroom poisonings, to identify nephrotoxic mushrooms, to present a toxidromic approach to earlier diagnoses of nephrotoxic mushroom poisonings based on the onset of acute renal failure, and to compare the outcomes of renal replacement management strategies. Internet search engines were queried with the keywords to identify scientific articles on nephrotoxic mushroom poisonings and their management during the period of 1957 to the present. Although hepatotoxic, amatoxin-containing mushrooms cause most mushroom poisonings and fatalities, nephrotoxic mushrooms, most commonly Cortinarius species, can cause acute renal insufficiency and failure. Several new species of nephrotoxic mushrooms have been identified, including Amanita proxima and Tricholoma equestre in Europe and Amanita smithiana in the United States and Canada. In addition, the edible, hallucinogenic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis has been noted recently via mass spectrometry as a rare cause of acute renal insufficiency. Renal replacement therapies including hemodialysis are often indicated in the management of nephrotoxic mushroom poisonings, with renal transplantation reserved for extracorporeal treatment failures.
Diaz, James H., "Nephrotoxic Mushroom Poisoning: Global Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management" (2021). School of Public Health Faculty Publications. 44.