Etiology of Prelingual Hearing Loss in the Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Era: A Scoping Review

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (United States)


Objective: To conduct a scoping review on etiologic investigation of prelingual hearing loss among children '2 years of age in the era of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases. Review Methods: We searched for articles published from January 1, 1998, to February 19, 2020. We reviewed studies that (1) included children identified with either congenital or delayed-onset hearing loss before 2 years of age among cohorts who had undergone UNHS and (2) investigated ≥1 etiologies of hearing loss. We defined hearing loss as congenital when confirmed after UNHS failure and as delayed onset when diagnosed after ≥1 assessments with normal hearing. Results: Among 2069 unique citations, 115 studies met criteria for full-text assessment, and 20 met our inclusion criteria. Six studies tested children diagnosed with hearing loss for genetic etiology, 9 for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and 5 for both. Among 1787 children with congenital hearing loss and etiologic investigation, 933 (52.2%) were tested for genetic mutations and 1021 (57.1%) for congenital CMV infection. The proportion of congenital hearing loss cases attributable to genetic etiology ranged between 7.7% and 83.3% and to congenital CMV infection between 0.0% and 32.0%. Conclusion: Data are lacking on the identification and etiology of delayed-onset hearing loss in children '2 years of age in the UNHS era. The proportion of congenital hearing loss cases attributable to genetic etiologies and congenital CMV infection appears to vary widely.

First Page


Last Page


PubMed ID