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Frontiers in Public Health


Although lycopene intake and risk of prostate cancer have been explored for decades, recent studies show that Non-Hispanic Black Prostate Cancer (PCa) patients benefit less than Non-Hispanic White patients from a lycopene intake intervention program. This study examined whether a lycopene intake-related racial disparity exists in reducing the risk of PCa in healthy adults. Data on healthy, cancer-free Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) men (n = 159) and Non-Hispanic White (NHW) men (n = 478) from the 2003 to 2010 NHANES dataset were analyzed. Total lycopene intake from daily diet, age, living status, race/ethnicity, education level, poverty income ratio, body mass index, and smoking status were studied as independent variables. The combination of total Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) level and the ratio of free PSA was set as criteria for evaluating the risk of PCa. Multivariable logistic regression was used in race-stratified analyses to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) comparing high PCa risk with low PCa risk. We found, in the whole population, race/ethnicity was the only factor that influenced lycopene intake from the daily diet. NHB men consumed less lycopene than NHW men (3,716 vs. 6,487 (mcg), p = 0.01). Sufficient lycopene intake could reduce the risk of PCa (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.18–0.85, p = 0.02). Men aged between 66 and 70 had high PCa risk (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.12–9.85, p = 0.03). Obesity served as a protective factor against the high risk of PCa (OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.12–0.54, p = 0.001). NHW men aged between 66 and 70 had a high risk of PCa (OR: 4.01, 95% CI: 1.02–15.73, p = 0.05). Obese NHW men also had lower risk of PCa (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07–0.47 p = 0.001). NHB men had a high risk of PCa compared to NHW men (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.35–3.81 p = 0.004). NHB men who were living without partners experienced an even higher risk of PCa (OR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.01–11.19 p = 0.07). Sufficient lycopene intake from daily food could serve as a protector against PCa. Such an association was only observed in NHW men. Further studies are needed to explore the dose-response relationship between lycopene intake and the association of PCa risk in NHB men.




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