Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)


Smoking is associated with a lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, there is little information about the association between HRQOL in relation to race, income, and smoking status. The present study aimed to assess the association between HRQOL and smoking status for those of different races and income levels. This study applied a cross-sectional design using data from the 2017 patient survey of the Louisiana Tobacco Control Initiative. We obtained 1108 responses from patients at eight Louisiana public hospitals. The EuroQol (EQ-5D) US index score assessed HRQOL. Smoking status was classified into four groups: never smoked, former smoker, current smoker with a quit attempt, and current smoker without a quit attempt. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to estimate the HRQOL for black or African Americans and whites. The patients were predominantly black or African American (58.9%) with lower-income (71.2%). Bivariate analyses showed that there were differences in income levels between black or African Americans and whites ( 0.006). Moreover, black or African Americans (median = 0.80) had a higher mean of HRQOL than whites (median = 0.76). Among lower-income black or African Americans, current smokers with a quit attempt had a lower HRQOL than current smokers (coefficient = -0.12; 0.01). Racial and income disparities were evident with regards to HRQOL, with lower-income black or African Americans who were current smokers with a quit attempt having a lower HRQOL. Intervention programs for smoking cessation should target lower-income black or African American smokers who have a prior quit attempt and provide effective cessation services to help them quit smoking and improve their HRQOL.

PubMed ID






Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.