Epidemiologic Design Bias, Confounders, And Interaction

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Book Chapter

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Epidemiology for the Advanced Practice Nurse: A Population Health Approach


Epidemiologic investigations and research studies attempt to explore the occurrence of a health event or disease within a population. This chapter provides an understanding of the different types of research bias and describes the strategies to impact research bias. It also provides an understanding of confounding and interaction. Bias can be introduced at multiple points in an epidemiologic investigation or research study and can have a direct impact on both the internal and external validity of the epidemiologic findings. The ability to determine the extent of association and causal inference is impacted by research bias, confounding variables, and interaction of variables. Bias reduction or elimination is the responsibility of the nurse researcher, nurse epidemiologist, or public health epidemiologist. Nurses themselves should also explore the extent to which their behavior or method of data collection introduces bias into the epidemiologic research study.

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Epidemiology For The Advanced Practice Nurse: A Population Health Approach