Adenosine 5′-triphosphate, or ATP, is the primary molecule for storing and transferring energy in cells. ATP is mainly produced via oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, and to a lesser extent, via glycolysis in the cytosol. In general, cytosolic glycolysis is the primary ATP producer in proliferative cells or cells subjected to hypoxia. On the other hand, mitochondria produce over 90% of cellular ATP in differentiated cells under normoxic conditions. Under pathological conditions, ATP demand rises to meet the needs of biosynthesis for cellular repair, signaling transduction for stress responses, and biochemical processes. These changes affect how mitochondria and cytosolic glycolysis function and communicate. Mitochondria undergo remodeling to adapt to the imbalanced demand and supply of ATP. Otherwise, a severe ATP deficit will impair cellular function and eventually cause cell death. It is suggested that ATP from different cellular compartments can dynamically communicate and coordinate to adapt to the needs in each cellular compartment. Thus, a better understanding of ATP dynamics is crucial to revealing the differences in cellular metabolic processes across various cell types and conditions. This requires innovative methodologies to record real-time spatiotemporal ATP changes in subcellular regions of living cells. Over the recent decades, numerous methods have been developed and utilized to accomplish this task. However, this is not an easy feat. This review evaluates innovative genetically encoded biosensors available for visualizing ATP in living cells, their potential use in the setting of human disease, and identifies where we could improve and expand our abilities.
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White, Donnell and Yang, Qinglin, "Genetically Encoded Atp Biosensors For Direct Monitoring Of Cellular Atp Dynamics" (2022). School of Medicine Faculty Publications. 877.