Co-Detection of EBV and Human Polyomavirus JCPyV in a Case of AIDS-Related Multifocal Primary Central Nervous System Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

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The human neurotropic Polyomavirus JCPyV is the widespread opportunistic causative pathogen of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; however, it has also been implicated in the oncogenesis of several types of cancers. It causes brain tumors when intracerebrally inoculated into rodents, and genomic sequences of different strains and expression of the viral protein large T-Antigen have been detected in a wide variety of glial brain tumors and CNS lymphomas. Here, we present a case of an AIDS-related multifocal primary CNS lymphoma in which JCPyV genomic sequences of the three regions of JCPyV and expression of T-Antigen were detected by PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. No capsid proteins were detected, ruling out active JCPyV replication. Sequencing of the control region revealed that Mad-4 was the strain of JCPyV present in tumor cells. In addition, expression of viral proteins LMP and EBNA-1 from another ubiquitous oncogenic virus, Epstein–Barr, was also detected in the same lymphocytic neoplastic cells, co-localizing with JCPyV T-Antigen, suggesting a potential collaboration between these two viruses in the process of malignant transformation of B-lymphocytes, which are the site of latency and reactivation for both viruses.

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