Involvement of lysyl oxidase in the pathogenesis of arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease

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American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology


Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events. CKD is associated with increases in arterial stiffness, whereas improvements in arterial stiffness correlate with better survival. However, arterial stiffness is increased early in CKD, suggesting that there might be additional factors, unique to kidney disease, that increase arterial stiffness. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a key mediator of collagen cross linking and matrix remodeling. LOX is predominantly expressed in the cardiovascular system, and its upregulation has been associated with increased tissue stiffening and extracellular matrix remodeling. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the role of increased LOX activity in inducing aortic stiffness in CKD and whether β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a LOX inhibitor, could prevent aortic stiffness by reducing collagen cross linking. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) or sham surgery. Two weeks after surgery, mice were randomized to BAPN (300 mg/kg/day in water) or vehicle treatment for 4 wk. Aortic stiffness was assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) using Doppler ultrasound. Aortic levels of LOX were assessed by ELISA, and cross-linked total collagen levels were analyzed by mass spectrometry and Sircol assay. Nx mice showed increased PWV and aortic wall remodeling compared with control mice. Collagen cross linking was increased in parallel with the increases in total collagen in the aorta of Nx mice. In contrast, Nx mice that received BAPN treatment showed decreased cross-linked collagens and PWV compared with that received vehicle treatment. Our results indicated that LOX might be an early and key mediator of aortic stiffness in CKD.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Arterial stiffness in CKD is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying increased aortic stiffness in CKD are unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that 1) increased aortic stiffness in CKD is independent of hypertension and calcification and 2) LOX-mediated changes in extracellular matrix are at least in part responsible for increased aortic stiffness in CKD. Prevention of excess LOX may have therapeutic potential in alleviating increased aortic stiffness and improving cardiovascular disease in CKD.

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