Role of Vitamin D in Treating COVID-19-Associated Coagulopathy: Problems and Perspectives

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Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry


Aggressive inflammatory response leading to hypercoagulability has been found to be associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients and portends bad treatment outcome. A state of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), along with pulmonary embolism and/or deep vein thrombosis, has been observed in critically ill ICU patients. Autopsy reports of COVID-19 patients demonstrated microthrombi in lungs and in other organs, as well as marked inflammatory changes, characteristic clinicopathological features that exacerbate disease severity. Vitamin D supplementation was recommended by many clinicians across the globe to improve clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients, mainly because of its immunomodulatory roles on immune cells. Furthermore, vitamin D and its associated molecules are also known to directly or indirectly regulate various thrombotic pathways. We propose that vitamin D supplementation not only attenuates the risk of Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome (ARDS) but it also may have a role in reducing coagulation abnormalities in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The overarching goal of this review is to discuss the effects of vitamin D on coagulation pathways and other intertwined processes leading to thrombosis. Many clinical trials are currently investigating the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection. However, randomized placebo control clinical trials are also necessary to ascertain the effect of vitamin D supplementation on reducing the risk of coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients.

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