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Frontiers in Neurology


Microbiome-derived Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown by multiple laboratories to reside within Alzheimer's disease (AD)-affected neocortical and hippocampal neurons. LPS and other pro-inflammatory stressors strongly induce a defined set of NF-kB (p50/p65)-sensitive human microRNAs, including a brain-enriched Homo sapien microRNA-30b-5p (hsa-miRNA-30b-5p; miRNA-30b). Here we provide evidence that this neuropathology-associated miRNA, known to be upregulated in AD brain and LPS-stressed human neuronal-glial (HNG) cells in primary culture targets the neurofilament light (NF-L) chain mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), which is conducive to the post-transcriptional downregulation of NF-L expression observed within both AD and LPS-treated HNG cells. A deficiency of NF-L is associated with consequent atrophy of the neuronal cytoskeleton and the disruption of synaptic organization. Interestingly, miRNA-30b has previously been shown to be highly expressed in amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide-treated animal and cell models, and Aβ peptides promote LPS entry into neurons. Increased miRNA-30b expression induces neuronal injury, neuron loss, neuronal inflammation, impairment of synaptic transmission, and synaptic failure in neurodegenerative disease and transgenic murine models. This gut microbiota-derived LPS-NF-kB-miRNA-30b-NF-L pathological signaling network: (i) underscores a positive pathological link between the LPS of gastrointestinal (GI)-tract microbes and the inflammatory neuropathology, disordered cytoskeleton, and disrupted synaptic signaling of the AD brain and stressed brain cells; and (ii) is the first example of a microbiome-derived neurotoxic glycolipid having significant detrimental miRNA-30b-mediated actions on the expression of NF-L, an abundant neuron-specific filament protein known to be important in the maintenance of neuronal cell shape, axonal caliber, and synaptic homeostasis.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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