Objectives: The International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC) facilitates the effective classification of a heterogeneous group of cancers in the important pediatric population. However, there has been no development of machine learning models for the ICCC classification. We developed deep learning-based information extraction models from cancer pathology reports based on the ICD-O-3 coding standard. In this article, we describe extending the models to perform ICCC classification. Materials and Methods: We developed 2 models, ICD-O-3 classification and ICCC recoding (Model 1) and direct ICCC classification (Model 2), and 4 scenarios subject to the training sample size. We evaluated these models with a corpus consisting of 29 206 reports with age at diagnosis between 0 and 19 from 6 state cancer registries. Results: Our findings suggest that the direct ICCC classification (Model 2) is substantially better than reusing the ICD-O-3 classification model (Model 1). Applying the uncertainty quantification mechanism to assess the confidence of the algorithm in assigning a code demonstrated that the model achieved a micro-F1 score of 0.987 while abstaining (not sufficiently confident to assign a code) on only 14.8% of ambiguous pathology reports. Conclusions: Our experimental results suggest that the machine learning-based automatic information extraction from childhood cancer pathology reports in the ICCC is a reliable means of supplementing human annotators at state cancer registries by reading and abstracting the majority of the childhood cancer pathology reports accurately and reliably.
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Yoon, Hong Jun; Peluso, Alina; Durbin, Eric B.; Wu, Xiao Cheng; Stroup, Antoinette; Doherty, Jennifer; Schwartz, Stephen; Wiggins, Charles; Coyle, Linda; and Penberthy, Lynne, "Automatic Information Extraction From Childhood Cancer Pathology Reports" (2022). School of Medicine Faculty Publications. 710.