Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a promising treatment option for patients suffering from B-cell- and plasma cell-derived hematologic malignancies and is being adapted for the treatment of solid cancers. However, CAR T is associated with frequently severe toxicities such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS), immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), and prolonged cytopenias—a reduction in the number of mature blood cells of one or more lineage. Although we understand some drivers of these toxicities, their mechanisms remain under investigation. Since the CAR T regimen is a complex, multi-step process with frequent adverse events, ways to improve the benefit-to-risk ratio are needed. In this review, we discuss a variety of potential solutions being investigated to address the limitations of CAR T. First, we discuss the incidence and characteristics of CAR T-related cytopenias and their association with reduced CAR T-cell efficacy. We review approaches to managing or mitigating cytopenias during the CAR T regimen—including the use of growth factors, allogeneic rescue, autologous hematopoietic stem cell infusion, and alternative conditioning regimens. Finally, we introduce novel methods to improve CAR T-cell-infusion products and the implications of CAR T and clonal hematopoiesis.
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Reinhardt, Bryanna; Lee, Patrick; and Sasine, Joshua P., "Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy and Hematopoiesis" (2023). School of Medicine Faculty Publications. 646.