Novel Designer Benzodiazepines: Comprehensive Review Of Evolving Clinical And Adverse Effects
As tranquilizers, benzodiazepines have a wide range of clinical uses. Recently, there has been a significant rise in the number of novel psychoactive substances, including designer benzodiazepines. Flubromazolam(8-bromo-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazeZpine) is a triazolo-analogue of flubromazepam. The most common effects noted by recreational users include heavy hypnosis and sedation, long-lasting amnesia, and rapid development of tolerance. Other effects included anxiolysis, muscle-relaxing effects, euphoria, loss of control, and severe withdrawals. Clonazolam, or 6-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-8-nitro-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-α]-[1,4]-benzodiazepine, is a triazolo-analog of clonazepam. It is reported to be over twice as potent as alprazolam. Deschloroetizolam (2-Ethyl-9-methyl-4-phenyl-6H-thieno[3,2-f][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]diazepine) is part of the thienodiazepine drug class, which, like benzodiazepines, stimulates GABA-A receptors. Meclonazepam ((3S)-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-7-nitro-1,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one) is a designer benzodiazepine with additional anti-parasitic effects. Although it has proven to be an efficacious therapy for schistosomiasis, its sedative side effects have prevented it from being marketed as a therapeutic agent. The use of DBZs has been a subject of multiple recent clinical studies, likely related to increasing presence and availability on the internet drug market and lack of regulation. Many studies have aimed to identify the prevalence of DBZs and their effects on those using them. This review discussed these designer benzodiazepines and the dangers and adverse effects that the clinician should know.
Edinoff, Amber N.; Nix, Catherine A.; Odisho, Amira S.; Babin, Caroline P.; Derouen, Alyssa G.; Lutfallah, Salim C.; Cornett, Elyse M.; Murnane, Kevin S.; Kaye, Adam M.; and Kaye, Alan D., "Novel Designer Benzodiazepines: Comprehensive Review Of Evolving Clinical And Adverse Effects" (2022). School of Medicine Faculty Publications. 582.