GRB2 Enforces Homology-Directed Repair Initiation by MRE11
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is initiated by MRE11 nuclease for both homology-directed repair (HDR) and alternative end joining (Alt-EJ). Here, we found that GRB2, crucial to timely proliferative RAS/MAPK pathway activation, unexpectedly forms a biophysically validated GRB2-MRE11 (GM) complex for efficient HDR initiation. GRB2-SH2 domain targets the GM complex to phosphorylated H2AX at DSBs. GRB2 K109 ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligase RBBP6 releases MRE11 promoting HDR. RBBP6 depletion results in prolonged GM complex and HDR defects. GRB2 knockout increased MRE11-XRCC1 complex and Alt-EJ. Reconstitution with separation-of-function GRB2 mutant caused HDR deficiency and synthetic lethality with PARP inhibitor. Cell and cancer genome analyses suggest biomarkers of low GRB2 for noncanonical HDR deficiency and high MRE11 and GRB2 expression for worse survival in HDR-proficient patients. These findings establish GRB2’s role in binding, targeting, and releasing MRE11 to promote efficient HDR over Alt-EJ DSB repair, with implications for genome stability and cancer biology.
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Ye, Zu; Xu, Shengfeng; Shi, Yin; Bacolla, Albino; Syed, Aleem; Moiani, Davide; Tsai, Chi Lin; Shen, Qiang; Peng, Guang; Leonard, Paul G.; Jones, Darin E.; Wang, Bin; Tainer, John A.; and Ahmed, Zamal, "GRB2 Enforces Homology-Directed Repair Initiation by MRE11" (2021). School of Medicine Faculty Publications. 58.