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International Journal of Molecular Sciences


Thyroid nodules can be classified as benign, malignant, or indeterminate, the latter of which make up 10–30% of nodules. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become an attractive and promising therapy for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. However, few studies have investigated the safety and efficacy of RFA for the management of indeterminate thyroid nodules. In this study, 178 patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as benign (Bethesda II) or indeterminate (Bethesda III/IV) by preoperative cytopathological analysis were included. Patients in the benign and indeterminate cohorts had similar thyroid nodule volume reduction rates at 65.60% and 64.20%, respectively (p = 0.68). The two groups had similar nodular regrowth rates, at 11.2% for benign nodules and 9.40% for indeterminate nodules (p = 0.72). A total of three cases of transient dysphonia were reported. RFA of indeterminate thyroid nodules was comparable to that of benign thyroid nodules in all parameters of interest, including volume reduction rate. To our best knowledge, our work is the first North American analysis comparing benign and indeterminate thyroid nodules and suggests RFA to be a promising modality for the management of indeterminate thyroid nodules.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Oncology Commons