Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Frontiers in Psychiatry


Background: Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) is an effective sampling strategy to recruit hard-to-reach populations but the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of this strategy in the collection of data involving human subjects, particularly among marginalized and vulnerable populations, is not known. Based on an ongoing study using RDS to recruit and study the interactions between HIV infection, injection drug use, and the microbiome in Puerto Rico, this paper explores the effectiveness of RDS during the pandemic and provided potential strategies that could improve recruitment and data collection. Results: RDS was employed to evaluate its effectiveness in recruiting a group of people who inject drugs (PWID) and controls (N = 127) into a study in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were distributed among three subsets: 15 were HIV+ and PWID, 58 were HIV- PWID, and 54 were HIV+ and not PWID. Findings: Results show that recruitment through peer networks using RDS was possible across all sub-groups. Yet, while those in the HIV+ PWID sub-group managed to recruit from other-sub groups of HIV- PWID and HIV+, this occurred at a lower frequency. Conclusion: Despite the barriers introduced by COVID-19, it is clear that even in this environment, RDS continues to play a powerful role in recruiting hard-to-reach populations. Yet, more attention should be paid at how future pandemics, natural disasters, and other big events might affect RDS recruitment of vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

File Format


File Size

675 KB

Included in

Oncology Commons