Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Advances in Therapy


Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the C1 esterase inhibitor gene. HAE affects 1/50,000 people worldwide. Three main types of HAE exist: type I, type II, and type III. Type I is characterized by a deficiency in C1-INH. C1-INH is important in the coagulation complement, contact systems, and fibrinolysis. Most HAE cases are type I. Type I and II HAE result from a mutation in the SERPING1 gene, which encodes C1-INH. Formally known as type III HAE is typically an estrogen-dependent or hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH activity. Current guidelines now recommend subdividing hereditary angioedema with normal C1 esterase inhibitor gene (HAE-nl-C1-INH formerly known as HAE type III) based on underlying mutations such as in kininogen-1 (HAE-KNG1), plasminogen gene (PLG-HAE), myoferlin gene mutation (MYOF-HAE), heparan sulfate-glucosamine 3-sulfotransferase 6 (HS3ST6), mutation in Hageman factor (factor XII), and in angiopoietin-1 (HAE-ANGPT-1). The clinical presentation of HAE varies between patients, but it usually presents with nonpitting angioedema and occasionally abdominal pain. Young children are typically asymptomatic. Those affected by HAE usually present with symptoms in their early 20s. Symptoms can arise as a result of stress, infection, or trauma. Laboratory testing shows abnormal levels of C1-INH and high levels of bradykinin. C4 and D-dimer levels can also be monitored if an acute HAE attack is suspected. Acute treatment of HAE can include IV infusions of C1-INH, receptor antagonists, and kallikrein inhibitors. Short- and long-term prophylaxis can also be administered to patients with HAE. First-line therapies for long-term prophylaxis also include IV infusion of C1-INH. This review aims to thoroughly understand HAE, its clinical presentation, and how to treat it.

PubMed ID


File Format


File Size

440 KB