Isolation, Proliferation and Differentiation of Rhesus Macaque Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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Journal of Visualized Experiments


Adipose tissue provides a rich and accessible source of multipotent stem cells, which are able to self-renew. These adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) provide a consistent ex vivo cellular system that are functionally like that of in vivo adipocytes. Use of ADSCs in biomedical research allows for cellular investigation of adipose tissue metabolic regulation and function. ADSC differentiation is necessary for adequate adipocyte expansion, and suboptimal differentiation is a major mechanism of adipose dysfunction. Understanding changes in ADSC differentiation is crucial to understanding the development of metabolic dysfunction and disease. The protocols described in this manuscript, when followed, will yield mature adipocytes that can be used for several in vitro functional tests to assess ADSC metabolic function, including but not limited to assays measuring glucose uptake, lipolysis, lipogenesis, and secretion. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are physiologically, anatomically, and evolutionarily similar to humans and as such, their tissues and cells have been used extensively in biomedical research and for development of treatments. Here, we describe ADSC isolation using fresh subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue obtained from 4–9-year old rhesus macaques. Adipose tissue samples are enzymatically digested in collagenase followed by filtration and centrifugation to isolate ADSCs from the stromal vascular fraction. Isolated ADSCs are proliferated in stromal media followed by approximately 14–21 days of differentiation using a cocktail of 0.5 μg/mL dexamethasone, 0.5 mM isobutyl methylxanthine, and 50 μM indomethacin in stromal media. Mature adipocytes are observed at approximately 14 days of differentiation. In this manuscript, we describe protocols for ADSC isolation, proliferation, and differentiation in vitro. Although, we have focused on ADSCs from rhesus macaque adipose tissue, these protocols can be utilized for adipose tissue obtained from other animals with minimal adjustments.

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MyJove Corporation [Independent Journal]