Diastolic Function and Ambulatory Hypertension in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

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Diastolic dysfunction is one of the earliest cardiac abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease. We analyzed echocardiographic markers of left ventricular function from 786 children and adolescents (1658 person-visits) enrolled in the CKiD (Chronic Kidney Disease in Children) cohort, a large prospective observational study of children with chronic kidney disease. Primary outcome was early mitral inflow velocity-to-early mitral annular peak velocity (E/e′) ratio as a marker of left ventricular compliance. Abnormal diastolic function was defined as E/e′>8.0. Those with an abnormal E/e′ ratio were younger, had a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and hemoglobin, and a higher prevalence of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy compared to children with a normal E/e′. In adjusted analysis, a higher E/e′ ratio was independently associated with ambulatory (sustained) hypertension (1.66 [95% CI, 1.15-2.42]). Other significant independent predictors were higher left ventricular mass index Z score, increased body mass index Z score, lower hemoglobin, higher phosphorus level, and younger age. Casual blood pressure was not significantly associated with higher E/e′. These data indicate that ambulatory blood pressure might better identify children with chronic kidney disease at risk for subclinical cardiac dysfunction than clinic blood pressure alone.

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American Heart Association [Society Publisher]