A Comparison of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Fresh Frozen Plasma and Never Frozen Plasma

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Journal of Surgical Research


Background: Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) contains proinflammatory mediators released from cellular debris during frozen storage. In addition, recent studies have shown that transfusion of never-frozen plasma (NFP), instead of FFP, may be superior in trauma patients. We hypothesized that FFP would have higher levels of inflammatory mediators when compared to NFP. Materials and Methods: FFP (n = 8) and NFP (n = 8) samples were obtained from an urban, level 1 trauma center blood bank. The cytokines in these samples were compared using a Milliplex (Milliplex Sigma) human cytokine magnetic bead panel multiplex assay for 41 different biomarkers. Results: Growth factors that were higher in NFP included platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA; 8.09 versus 108.00 pg/mL, P < 0.001) and PDGF-AB (0.00 versus 215.20, P= 0.004). Soluble CD40-ligand (sCD40L), a platelet activator and pro-coagulant, was higher in NFP (31.81 versus 80.45 pg/mL, P< 0.001). RANTES, a leukocyte chemotactic cytokine was higher in NFP (26.19 versus 1418.00 pg/mL, P< 0.001). Interleukin-4 (5.70 versus 0.00 pg/mL, P= 0.03) and IL-8 (2.20 versus 0.52 pg/ml, P= 0.03) levels were higher in were higher in FFP. Conclusions: Frozen storage of plasma may result in decrease of several growth factors and/or pro-coagulants found in NFP. In addition, the freezing and thawing process may induce release of pro-inflammatory chemokines. Further studies are needed to determine if these cytokines result in improved outcomes with NFP over FFP in transfusion of trauma patients.

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Elsevier ; Academic Press