Types of memory, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and their various pathological cascades as targets for potential pharmacological drugs

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Ageing Research Reviews


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia accounting for 90% of cases; however, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, etc. prevails only in a minority of populations. The term dementia is defined as loss of memory which further takes several other categories of memories like working memory, spatial memory, fear memory, and long-term, and short-term memory into consideration. In this review, these memories have critically been elaborated based on context, duration, events, appearance, intensity, etc. The most important part and purpose of the review is the various pathological cascades as well as molecular levels of targets of AD, which have extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau protein as major disease hallmarks. There is another phenomenon that either leads to or arises from the above-mentioned hallmarks, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, cholinergic dysfunction, and insulin resistance. Several potential drugs like antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, insulin mimetics or sensitizers, etc. studied in various previous preclinical or clinical reports were put as having the capacity to act on these pathological targets. Additionally, agents directly or indirectly targeting amyloid and tau were also discussed. This could be further investigated in future research.

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