Alkindi Sprinkle for Pediatric Patients With Primary Adrenocortical Insufficiency: A Narrative Review

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Adrenocortical insufficiency, also known as adrenal insufficiency (AI), is an endocrine disorder characterized by inadequate production of adrenal hormones, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids (MCs). The condition can be categorized as primary, secondary, or tertiary AI, depending on the location of the defect. Classical symptoms of AI include weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, tachycardia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalances, and hyperpigmentation. In children, the most common cause of AI is classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which results from a deficiency in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme. The 21-hydroxylase enzyme produces all steroids, such as cortisol and aldosterone. AI management primarily involves hormone replacement therapy, typically with oral hydrocortisone and MC supplementation. However, the administration of hydrocortisone to pediatric patients presents challenges related to the lack of available dose-appropriate formulations. Historically, crushed or split adult tablets were used for the pediatric treatment of AI, although this poses an increased risk of under- or overtreatment. Inadequate dosing in the pediatric population can adversely affect growth, development, and metabolic health. Alkindi Sprinkle is a pediatric-specific hydrocortisone oral granule preparation that manages cortisol levels to help facilitate accurate therapeutic dosing. Alkindi offers several advantages, including accurate dosing, taste masking, and ease of administration. The present investigation describes AI, the management of AI, and the treatment of pediatric AI using Alkindi Sprinkle, including clinical efficacy.

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