Phenolic acids prevent sex-steroid deficiency-induced bone loss and bone marrow adipogenesis in mice

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Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry


Phenolic acids, such as hippuric acid (HA) and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (3-3-PPA), can be produced from microbiome digestion of polyphenols. Previously it was found that HA and 3-3-PPA facilitate bone formation and suppress bone resorption. However, the mechanism of action by which HA and 3-3-PPA protect bone from degeneration is currently unknown. In this report, we present that HA and 3-3-PPA suppression of bone resorption is able to ameliorate bone loss in an ovariectomy (OVX) osteopenic mouse model though not to the extent of Zoledronic acid (ZA). HA and 3-3-PPA treatments were shown to significantly decrease bone marrow adipocyte-like cell formation and inhibited gene expression of key adipogenesis regulator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) in bone from OVX mice. In addition, ChIP experiments showed that the association between PPARγ and Lpl promoter region in preadipocyte-like cells was significantly suppressed following HA or 3-3-PPA treatment. Contrasting HA and 3-3-PPA, ZA significantly increased TRAP activity in the area close to growth plate and significantly suppressed bone cell proliferation. These data suggest that phenolics acids such as HA or 3-3-PPA may prevent bone degeneration after OVX through suppression of inflammatory milieu in the bone.

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