Chronic binge alcohol administration impairs glucose-insulin dynamics and decreases adiponectin in asymptomatic simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques

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American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology


Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently exist among persons living with HIV/AIDS. Chronic alcohol consumption, HIV infection, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are independently associated with impairments in glucose-insulin dynamics. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration decreases body mass index, attenuates weight gain, and accentuates skeletal muscle wasting at end-stage disease in non-ART-treated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CBA and ART alone or in combination alter body composition or glucose-insulin dynamics in SIV-infected male rhesus macaques during the asymptomatic phase of SIV infection. Daily CBA or sucrose (SUC) administration was initiated 3 mo before intrarectal SIV inoculation and continued until the study end point at 11 mo post-SIV infection. ART or placebo was initiated 2.5 mo after SIV infection and continued until study end point. Four treatment groups (SUC/SIV ± ART and CBA/SIV ± ART) were studied. CBA/SIV macaques had significantly decreased circulating adiponectin and resistin levels relative to SUC/SIV macaques and reduced disposition index and acute insulin response to glucose, insulin, and C-peptide release during frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, irrespective of ART status. No statistically significant differences were observed in homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values, body weight, total body fat, abdominal fat, or total lean mass or bone health among the four groups. These findings demonstrate CBA-mediated impairments in glucose-insulin dynamics and adipokine profile in asymptomatic SIV-infected macaques, irrespective of ART.

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