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Background: Parathyroidectomy is the definitive cure for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and has an annual prevalence of 0.2–1% in the United States. Some patients with mild disease are medically managed effectively using calcium-lowering medications and drugs against complications such as osteoporosis; however, many maintain a persistently high calcium level that negatively impacts their skeletal, renal, and psychogenic systems over the long term. This meta-analysis aims to compare the outcomes of medical management versus parathyroidectomy in patients with mild pHPT. Study Design: This meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science by two teams of investigators. Analysis was run using R packages. Results: A total of 12 publications including seven randomized control, two prospective, and three retrospective trials with a total of 1346 patients were included for analysis. The average follow-up for all patients was 41 ± 23.8 months. Demographics, pre-treatment calcium, PTH, and bone mineral density (BMD) were similar between the medical (N = 632) and surgical (N = 714) cohorts. Post-treatment calcium and PTH levels were significantly higher in the medical cohort (10.46 vs. 9.39, p < 0.01), (106.14 vs. 43.25, p = 0.001), respectively. Interestingly, the post-treatment PTH in the medical cohort increased when compared to pre-treatment (83.84 to 106.14). Patients in the medical cohort had lower BMD in lumbar (0.48 g/cm2; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.21, 0.83), femoral (0.48; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.61), and hip (0.61; OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.85). Incidences of fracture, nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular death, or overall mortality were not significantly different between the cohorts. Conclusions: The present study is the most comprehensive meta-analysis on mild pHPT to date. Our findings reflect that parathyroidectomy is the superior option in the treatment of mild pHPT patients as opposed to medical management.

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License