Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title



Cryptococcus neoformans poses a threat to human health, but anticryptococcal therapy is hampered by the emergence of drug resistance, whose underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we discovered that Isw1, an imitation switch chromatin remodeling ATPase, functions as a master modulator of genes responsible for in vivo and in vitro multidrug resistance in C. neoformans. Cells with the disrupted ISW1 gene exhibited profound resistance to multiple antifungal drugs. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that Isw1 is both acetylated and ubiquitinated, suggesting that an interplay between these two modification events exists to govern Isw1 function. Mutagenesis studies of acetylation and ubiquitination sites revealed that the acetylation status of Isw1K97 coordinates with its ubiquitination processes at Isw1K113 and Isw1K441 through modulating the interaction between Isw1 and Cdc4, an E3 ligase. Additionally, clinical isolates of C. neoformans overexpressing the degradation-resistant ISW1K97Q allele showed impaired drug-resistant phenotypes. Collectively, our studies revealed a sophisticated acetylation-Isw1-ubiquitination regulation axis that controls multidrug resistance in C. neoformans.

PubMed ID




Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.