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Gland Surgery


Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is an endocrine disorder typically characterized by elevated serum calcium and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). While parathyroidectomy is the standard treatment, non-operative intervention such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been adopted as an alternative for the management of pHPT, as it has been utilized in other endocrine glands such as thyroid and adrenal. In this literature review, we aim to evaluate the current practice of RFA for pHPT. Methods: A systematic literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase through June 2022 was conducted. Studies included in the review consisted of patient cohorts who had an unequivocal diagnosis of pHPT and underwent the treatment of pHPT with RFA. When more than one study was published from a similar cohort of patients, only the study with the most number of patients was considered. Studies included were assessed for bias using the critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) System. Results: A total of 14 studies describing 167 parathyroid glands treated in 163 patients were reviewed. The overall cure rate was 91.2%, with 5 patients undergoing more than one ablation. The most common adverse effect encountered was temporary dysphonia. Incomplete ablation and missed multiglandular disease were the most common reasons for RFA treatment failure. Conclusions: RFA may be an effective and safe alternative to parathyroidectomy in select patients with a well-localized, well-located parathyroid adenoma. Additional long-term data are needed to refine its role in the pHPT treatment algorithm.

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