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Journal of Surgical Research


Introduction: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the standard form of preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodule cytological status. A significant number FNAs are classified as inadequate for interpretation, requiring a repeat FNA which is potentially avoidable, costly, and delays treatment. To address these concerns and maximize first-time FNA adequacy, rapid onsite evaluation (ROSE) of FNA specimens was introduced. Our study aims to determine the impact of ROSE on FNA adequacy. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for primary articles assessing the adequacy of ROSE in thyroid nodules. Results: A total of 17 studies were included for a total of 24,649 thyroid nodes. Thirteen thousand two hundred fifteen (53.6%) thyroid nodules were assessed utilizing ROSE and 11,434 (46.4%) were not. Pooled adequacy increased significantly from 76% without ROSE to 92% with rose (P = 0.001). Use of ROSE increased the odds of adequate FNA by 22% (risk ratio (RR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-1.32). At institutions with less than 85% effective diagnostic adequacy without ROSE, the risk for diagnostic adequacy increased by 28% with ROSE implementation (RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.20-1.37). In contrast, in studies reported from institutions with an effective diagnostic rate greater than 85% without the use of ROSE, the diagnostic adequacy only increased by 5% with ROSE implementation (RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.06). Conclusions: The use of ROSE during first-time FNA of thyroid nodules can significantly improve adequacy, especially at institutions with baseline high inadequacy rates. Implementation of ROSE can reduce repeat FNAs and its associated consequences.

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