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Critical Care Explorations


OBJECTIVES: To assess the in vitro IntelliSep test, a microfluidic assay that quantifies the state of immune activation by evaluating the biophysical properties of leukocytes, as a rapid diagnostic for sepsis. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Five emergency departments (EDs) in Louisiana, Missouri, North Carolina, and Washington. PATIENTS: Adult patients presenting to the ED with signs (two of four Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome criteria, where one must be temperature or WBC count) or suspicion (provider-ordered culture) of infection. INTERVENTIONS: All patients underwent testing with the IntelliSep using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid-anticoagulated whole blood followed by retrospective adjudication for sepsis by sepsis-3 criteria by a blinded panel of physicians. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 599 patients enrolled, 572 patients were included in the final analysis. The result of the IntelliSep test is reported as the IntelliSep Index (ISI), ranging from 0.1 to 10.0, divided into three interpretation bands for the risk of sepsis: band 1 (low) to band 3 (high). The median turnaround time for ISI results was 7.2 minutes. The ISI resulted band 1 in 252 (44.1%), band 2 in 160 (28.0%), and band 3 in 160 (28.0%). Sepsis occurred in 26.6% (152 of 572 patients). Sepsis prevalence was 11.1% (95% CI, 7.5-15.7%) in band 1, 28.1% (95% CI, 21.3-35.8%) in band 2, and 49.4% (95% CI, 41.4-57.4%) in band 3. The Positive Percent Agreement of band 1 was 81.6% and the Negative Percent Agreement of band 3 was 80.7%, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.74. Compared with band 1, band 3 correlated with adverse clinical outcomes, including mortality, and resource utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing ISI interpretation band is associated with increasing probability of sepsis in patients presenting to the ED with suspected infection.

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