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Arthroplasty Today


BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgery recommends intra-articular corticosteroid injections (CSIs) for managing hip osteoarthritis (OA) based on short-term, prospective studies. Recent retrospective studies have raised concerns that CSIs may lead to rapidly progressive OA (RPOA). We sought to systematically review the literature of CSIs for hip OA to estimate the incidence of RPOA. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify original research of hip OA patients receiving CSIs. Overall, 27 articles involving 5831 patients published from 1988 to 2022 were included. Study design, patient characteristics, CSI details, follow-up, and cases of RPOA were recorded. Studies were classified by their ability to detect RPOA based on follow-up. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the incidence of RPOA for studies able to detect RPOA. RESULTS: The meta-analytic estimate of RPOA incidence was 6% (95% confidence interval, 3%-9%) based on 10 articles classified as able to detect RPOA. RPOA definitions varied from progression of OA within 6 months to the presence of destructive changes. These studies were subject to bias from excluding patients with missing post-CSI radiographs. The remaining 17 articles were classified as unable to detect RPOA, including all of the studies cited in the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgery recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of RPOA after CSIs remains unknown due to variation in definitions and follow-up. While RPOA following CSIs may be 6%, many cases are not severe, and this may reflect selection bias. Further research is needed to understand whether clinically significant RPOA is incident enough to limit CSI use.

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