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Open Forum Infectious Diseases


BACKGROUND: Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) is a relatively infrequent but significant infection in pediatric patients. As is the most common cause of AHO, intravenous and oral first-generation cephalosporins are common therapies. Cephalexin is a commonly prescribed oral therapy for pediatric AHO, although it requires frequent dosing that may affect adherence. Cefadroxil is a comparable oral first-generation cephalosporin with a more desirable dosing schedule. METHODS: We reviewed pediatric patients admitted to Mayo Clinic between March 2002 and September 2020 for management of AHO who received treatment with a first-generation cephalosporin. We reviewed timing of oral therapy transition, therapy-associated adverse effects, and recurrence of disease after completion of therapy. RESULTS: There were 59 patients included in the study. There was similar occurrence of adverse effects in patients receiving cefadroxil and cephalexin, although use of cefadroxil coincided with more gastrointestinal adverse effects and leukopenia and use of cephalexin with more rash and neutropenia. One secondary treatment failure occurred in our study, in a patient receiving cephalexin for treatment of septic arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Cefadroxil may be a reasonable alternative oral therapy for methicillin-susceptible or culture-negative AHO in pediatric patients, particularly when a less frequent dosing schedule is desired. Future study with a larger sample size is warranted.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.