Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Clinical Review of Pathogenesis, Clinical Considerations, and Treatment Strategies

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BACKGROUND: infection (CDI) is a common nosocomial infection. Risk factors for developing CDI include prior hospitalization, being older than 65 years old, antibiotic use, and chronic disease. It is linked with diarrhea and colitis and can vary in severity. It is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. However, community-acquired CDI is also increasing. Proper diagnosis and determination of severity are crucial for the treatment of CDI. Depending on how severe the CDI is, the patient may endorse different symptoms and physical exam findings. The severity of CDI will determine how aggressively it is treated. Management and treatment: Laboratory studies can be helpful in the diagnosis of CDI. In this regard, common labs include complete blood count, stool assays, and, in certain cases, radiography and endoscopy. Mild-to-moderate colitis is treated with antibiotics, but severe colitis requires a different approach, which may include surgery. Several alternative therapies for CDI exist and have shown promising results. This review will touch upon these therapies, which include fecal transplants, intravenous immunoglobulin, and the use of cholestyramine and tigecycline. CONCLUSION: Prevention of CDI can be achieved by proper hygiene, vaccinations, and detecting the infection early. Proper hygiene is indeed noted to be one of the best ways to prevent CDI in the hospital setting. Overprescribing antibiotics is also another huge reason why CDI occurs. Proper prescription of antibiotics can also help reduce the chances of acquiring CDI.

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