A novel method for detection of pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma using explainable machine learning

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine


Background and Objective; Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a form of pancreatic cancer that is one of the primary causes of cancer-related deaths globally, with less than 10 % of the five years survival rate. The prognosis of pancreatic cancer has remained poor in the last four decades, mainly due to the lack of early diagnostic mechanisms. This study proposes a novel method for detecting PDAC using explainable and supervised machine learning from Raman spectroscopic signals. Methods; An insightful feature set consisting of statistical, peak, and extended empirical mode decomposition features is selected using the support vector machine recursive feature elimination method integrated with a correlation bias reduction. Explicable features successfully identified mutations in Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and tumor suppressor protein53 (TP53) in the fingerprint region for the first time in the literature. PDAC and normal pancreas are classified using K-nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis, and support vector machine classifiers. Results; This study achieved a classification accuracy of 98.5% using a nonlinear support vector machine. Our proposed method reduced test time by 28.5 % and saved 85.6 % memory utilization, which reduces complexity significantly and is more accurate than the state-of-the-art method. The generalization of the proposed method is assessed by fifteen-fold cross-validation, and its performance is evaluated using accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, and receiver operating characteristic curves. Conclusions; In this study, we proposed a method to detect and define the fingerprint region for PDAC using explainable machine learning. This simple, accurate, and efficient method for PDAC detection in mice could be generalized to examine human pancreatic cancer and provide a basis for precise chemotherapy for early cancer treatment.

PubMed ID