Contrast-Enhanced Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging With a Manganese-Based Alternative to Gadolinium for Tissue Characterization of Acute Myocardial Infarction
BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is an effective and reproducible method for characterizing myocardial infarction. However, gadolinium-based contrast agents are contraindicated in patients with acute and chronic renal insufficiency. In addition, several recent studies have noted tissue deposition of free gadolinium in patients who have undergone serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. There is a clinical need for alternative forms of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents that are acceptable in the setting of renal insufficiency. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three days after 80 minutes of ischemia/reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed to assess myocardial lesion burden using both contrast agents. Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was examined 10 and 15 minutes after contrast injection. Contrast agents were administered in alternating manner with a 2-to 3-hour washout period between contrast agent injections. Lesion evaluation and image processing were performed using Segment Medviso software. Mean infarct size and transmurality, measured using RVP-001, were not different compared with those measured using late gadolinium enhancement images. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a nominal bias of 0.13 mL (<1% of average total lesion volume) for RVP-001 in terms of gross infarct size measurement. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental manganese-based contrast agent RVP-001 appears to be an effective agent for assessment of myocardial infarction location, size, and transmurality, and it may be useful as an alternative to gadolinium-based agents.