Chemodenervation Algorithm: Functional and Aesthetic Considerations for Facial Harmony in Patients with Post-Facial Paralysis Synkinesis
Facial Plastic Surgery and Aesthetic Medicine
Management of post-facial paralysis synkinesis has evolved for the past decade with diversification of neuromuscular retraining, chemodenervation, and advanced surgical reanimation techniques. Chemodenervation with botulinum toxin-A is a commonly used treatment modality for synkinesis patients. Treatment has shifted from solely weakening the unaffected contralateral facial musculature for rote symmetry to selective reduction of undesired or overactive synkinetic muscles, allowing for a more organized motion of the recovered musculature. Facial neuromuscular retraining should be considered a crucial component of treating patients with synkinesis along with soft tissue mobilization, but specifics of these are beyond the scope of this article. Our goal was to create a descriptive platform for our method of chemodenervation treatment in the evolving field of post-facial paralysis synkinesis. A multi-institutional and multidisciplinary comparison of techniques was performed with photograph and video creation, review, and discussion over an electronic platform with all authors. Anatomic specifics of each region of the face and individual muscles were considered. A muscle by muscle algorithm for synkinesis therapy was created to include chemodenervation with botulinum toxin that should be considered for patients suffering from post-facial paralysis synkinesis.
Hetzler, Laura; MacDowell, Sara; Diels, Jackie; VandeWater, Tracy; and Azzizadeh, Babak, "Chemodenervation Algorithm: Functional and Aesthetic Considerations for Facial Harmony in Patients with Post-Facial Paralysis Synkinesis" (2023). School of Medicine Faculty Publications. 1856.