Blocking pro-inflammatory platelet-activating factor receptors and activating cell survival pathways

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Brain circulation


Objective: Acute ischemic stroke triggers complex neurovascular, neuroinflammatory, and synaptic alterations. This study explores whether blocking pro-inflammatory platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R) plus selected docosanoids after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) would lead to neurological recovery. The following small molecules were investigated: (a) LAU-0901, a PAF-R antagonist that blocks pro-inflammatory signaling; and (b) derivatives of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), and aspirin-triggered NPD1 (AT-NPD1), which activates cell survival pathways and are exert potent anti-inflammatory activity in the brain. Materials and methods: Sprague-Dawley rats received 2 h MCAo and LAU-0901 (30 or 60 mg/kg, 2 h after stroke), NPD1, and AT-NPD1 (333 μg/kg), DHA (5 mg/kg), and their combination were administered intravenous at 3 h after stroke. Behavior testing and ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging were conducted on day 3 or 14 to assess lesion characteristics and lipidomic analysis on day 1. Series 1 (LAU-0901 + NPD1, 14d), Series 2 (LAU-0901 + AT-NPD1, 3d), and Series 3 (LAU-0901 + DHA, 1d). Results: All combinatory groups improved behavior compared to NPD1, AT-NPD1, or DHA treatments alone. Total lesion volumes were reduced with LAU-0901 + NPD1 by 62% and LAU-0901 + AT-NPD1 by 90% treatments versus vehicle groups. LAU-0901 and LAU-0901 + DHA increased the production of vasoactive lipid mediators (prostaglandins: PGE2, PGF2- α, 6-keto-PGF1- α, and PGD2) as well an inflammatory regulating mediator hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid. In contrast, LAU-0901 and LAU-0901 + DHA decreased the production of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a pro-inflammatory mediator. Conclusion: Combination therapy with LAU-0901 and selected docosanoids is more effective than the single therapy, affording synergistic neuroprotection, with restored pro-homeostatic lipid mediators and improved neurological recovery. Altogether, our findings support the combinatory therapy as the basis for future therapeutics for ischemic stroke

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