Snapshot Multispectral Imaging Is Not Inferior to SPY Laser Fluorescence Imaging When Predicting Murine Flap Necrosis

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Plastic and reconstructive surgery


Background: Objective assessment of tissue viability is critical to improve outcomes of cosmetic and reconstructive procedures. A widely used method to predict tissue viability is indocyanine green angiography. The authors present an alternative method that determines the relative proportions of oxyhemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin through multispectral reflectance imaging. This affordable, hand-held device is noninvasive and may be used in clinic settings. The authors hypothesize that multispectral reflectance imaging is not inferior to indocyanine green angiography in predicting flap necrosis in the murine model. Methods: Reverse McFarlane skin flaps measuring 10 × 3 cm were raised on 300- to 400-g male Sprague-Dawley rats. Indocyanine green angiography and multispectral reflectance imaging was performed before surgery, immediately after surgery, and 30 minutes after surgery. Clinical outcome images acquired 72 hours after surgery were evaluated by three independent plastic surgeons. Objective data obtained immediately after surgery were compared to postsurgical clinical outcomes to determine which method more accurately predicted flap necrosis. Results: Nine reverse McFarlane skin flaps were evaluated 72 hours after flap elevation. Data analysis demonstrated that the 95 percent confidence intervals for the sensitivity of postoperative multispectral reflectance imaging and indocyanine green angiography imaging to predict 72-hour tissue viability at a fixed specificity of 90 percent for predicting tissue necrosis were 86.3 to 91.0 and 79.1 to 86.9, respectively. Conclusions: In this experimental animal model, multispectral reflectance imaging does not appear to be inferior to indocyanine green angiography in detecting compromised tissue viability. With the advantages of noninvasiveness, portability, affordability, and lack of disposables, multispectral reflectance imaging has an exciting potential for widespread use in cosmetic and reconstructive procedures.

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