Multicenter Study of Perioperative Hepatic Angioembolization as an Adjunct for Management of Major Operative Hepatic Trauma

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Journal of the American College of Surgeons


BACKGROUND: The management of major liver trauma continues to evolve in trauma centers across the US with increasing use of minimally invasive techniques. Data on the outcomes of these procedures remain minimal. The objective of this study was to evaluate patient complications after perioperative hepatic angioembolization as an adjunct to management of major operative liver trauma. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective multi-institutional study was performed at 13 level 1 and level 2 trauma centers from 2012 to 2021. Adult patients with major liver trauma (grade 3 and higher) requiring operative management were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups: angioembolization (AE) and no angioembolization (NO AE). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 442 patients were included with AE performed in 20.4% (n = 90 of 442) of patients. The AE group was associated with higher rates of biloma formation (p = 0.0007), intra-abdominal abscess (p = 0.04), pneumonia (p = 0.006), deep vein thrombosis (p = 0.0004), acute renal failure (p = 0.004), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.0003), and it had longer ICU and hospital length of stay (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the AE had a significantly higher amount intra-abdominal abscess formation (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.6, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first multicenter studies comparing AE in specifically operative high-grade liver injuries and found that patients with liver injury that undergo AE in addition to surgery have higher rates of both intra- and extra-abdominal complications. This provides important information that can guide clinical management.

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