The impact of veteran support and resources for diabetes (iNSPiRED) on diabetes distress: Results from a randomized, parallel-group trial

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General Hospital Psychiatry


Objective: The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of a novel, peer-directed intervention (iNSPiRED) on diabetes distress (DD) among veterans with type 2 diabetes and DD. Secondary objectives were to assess iNSPiRED's impact on anxiety, depression, and diabetes self-management behaviors. Method: A single-blinded, randomized, parallel-group trial was conducted. Participants (n = 218) were recruited through a Veterans Affairs medical center and community agencies in a major metropolitan area from September 2019 through January 2022. Certified mental health peer specialists delivered iNSPiRED, a three-month goal-setting and resource navigation intervention. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and month six. Multilevel random-intercept linear regression models with treatment x time interaction terms were used to assess treatment effects. Results: Frequency of following a healthy eating plan was higher for iNSPiRED vs usual care at month three relative to baseline (B = 0.58; p = 0.03) after adjusting for race and socioeconomic status. No other treatment effects differed significantly from zero (ps ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: Peer-directed interventions have the potential to deliver low-cost, highly scalable care. However, based on the largely negative findings of the current study, it is likely that more intense, multimodal interventions are needed to address DD.

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