Primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland with sarcomatoid differentiation: case report and genomic analysis

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Orbit (London)


We describe a case of primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland with novel histopathological characteristics corresponding to a biphasic growth course and provide a comprehensive genomic profile of this malignancy. A 39-year-old male with a history of slowly progressive unilateral proptosis and hypoglobus presented after 1 month of hyperacute exacerbation. Orbital imaging revealed a superior mass with osseous erosion. The patient underwent orbital exploration and excisional biopsy via lateral orbitotomy. Histopathology demonstrated high-grade adenocarcinoma with a well-differentiated glandular component alongside a poorly differentiated sarcomatoid region. The glandular section was immunopositive for Her-2, CK7, GATA3, and androgen receptor. Tumor recurrence necessitated en-bloc exenteration with dural resection alongside adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This represents the first report of sarcomatoid differentiation in primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland, which may incite hyperacute progression. Conversely, GATA3 immunopositivity may correlate with indolent growth. Genomic variants such as SEMA3C represent potential therapeutic targets for this condition.

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