Hepatitis C Is Associated With Higher Short-Term Complication Rates After Initial Aseptic and Septic Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Matched Cohort Study

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Journal of Arthroplasty


Background: It is unclear if hepatitis C virus (HCV) negatively impacts outcomes of revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA). The purpose of this study is to trend recent rTHA utilization in patients who have HCV and compare postoperative complication rates versus a matched cohort. Methods: All patients who underwent rTHA were retrospectively identified in a national database. Patients who had HCV (n = 1,746) were matched 1:3 with a matching group (n = 5,238) for age, gender, and several comorbidities. Cochran-Armitage tests were used to analyze trends in the annual proportion of rTHA performed in patients who had HCV from 2010 to 2019. Rates of 90-day medical and prosthesis-related complications within 2 years postoperatively were compared with multivariable logistic regressions. Results: The annual proportion of rTHA performed in patients who had HCV significantly increased from 2010 to 2019 (P < .001). Patients who had HCV exhibited significantly higher rates of acute kidney injuries (7.6% versus 4.4%; odds ratio [OR] 1.50), transfusions (20.6% versus 14.6%; OR 1.38), and re-revisions for prosthetic joint infection (10.9% versus 6.5%; OR 1.73). In subgroup analyses, rates of re-revision for prosthetic joint infection after initial aseptic rTHA (7.1% versus 3.8%; OR 1.82) and periprosthetic fracture after initial septic rTHA (4.5% versus 1.6%; OR 2.77) were significantly higher in the HCV cohort. Conclusion: Similar to primary THA, patients who have HCV exhibit significantly increased complication rates after rTHA. With growing utilization in recent years, these data suggest that this population will comprise an increasingly larger proportion of rTHA procedures performed in the coming years.

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