Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Facial Plastic Surgery and Aesthetic Medicine


Introduction: There is an anatomic explanation for upper lip and midfacial tethering resulting in lack of motion in facial synkinesis. Objective: To measure the effect of perinasal chemodenervation on dental show in the synkinetic population and clarify the anatomic relationship of perinasal musculature. Methods: Literature search was performed on anatomy of the perinasal modiolus, and anatomic evaluation was performed through human anatomic specimen dissection. Photographic outcomes were observed in synkinetic patients receiving chemodenervation to smile antagonists with and without perinasal muscle injections and assessed through naive observer survey. Retrospective outcomes for all patients receiving perinasal chemodenervation was collected utilizing Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale, Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (FGS), Facial Disability Index (FDI), and the Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire. Results: Anatomic dissections demonstrated muscular confluence spanning the nasal sidewall and upper lip tethering the soft tissue to bone. Thirty-four of 53 chemodenervation patients received perinasal Botox experiencing improvement in synkinetic symptoms of the upper lip, nose, and improved dental show as noted on paired t-test for FGS (p = 0.00096), and FDI social p = 0.015) also supported by naive observer surveys (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Human anatomic specimen dissections support a perinasal confluence of musculature with bony attachments that can be successfully treated with chemodenervation in facial synkinesis patients.

First Page


Last Page


PubMed ID






Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.