The utility of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in post-transplant cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis: a case report and review of the literature
Background To date, there are only a few case reports of cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in adult or pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) patients treated successfully with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). In all the reported cases, Cy was used as a part of the conditioning regimen, rather than post-transplant for graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. More recently, the risk of HC in allogeneic SCT is further increased by the widespread use of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as a highly effective strategy for GVHD prophylaxis. This is the first case reported of PTCy-induced HC successfully treated with HBO to the best of our knowledge. Case presentation In this article, we present a 58-year-old Caucasian male case of allogeneic SCT complicated by severe HC following PTCy, which was successfully treated with HBO, eliminating the need for cystectomy. Conclusion HBO can be a safe, noninvasive, alternative treatment modality for PTCy-induced HC developing in allogeneic SCT patients.