Immunoinflammatory Role Of Apolipoprotein E4 In Malnutrition And Enteric Infections And The Increased Risk For Chronic Diseases Under Adverse Environments
Apolipoprotein E plays a crucial role in cholesterol metabolism. The immunomodulatory functions of the human polymorphic APOE gene have gained particular interest because APOE4, a well-recognized risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, has also been recently linked to increased risk of COVID-19 infection severity in a large UK biobank study. Although much is known about apoE functions in the nervous system, much less is known about APOE polymorphism effects on malnutrition and enteric infections and the consequences for later development in underprivileged environments. In this review, recent findings are summarized of apoE's effects on intestinal function in health and disease and the role of APOE4 in protecting against infection and malnutrition in children living in unfavorable settings, where poor sanitation and hygiene prevail, is highlighted. The potential impact of APOE4 on later development also is discussed and gaps in knowledge are identified that need to be addressed to protect children's development under adverse environments.
Freitas, Raul S.; Roque, Cássia R.; Matos, Gabriella A.; Belayev, Ludmila; De Azevedo, Orleâncio G.R.; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I.; Guerrant, Richard L.; and Oriá, Reinaldo B., "Immunoinflammatory Role Of Apolipoprotein E4 In Malnutrition And Enteric Infections And The Increased Risk For Chronic Diseases Under Adverse Environments" (2022). School of Medicine Faculty Publications. 1026.