Anti-viral monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments may provide immediate but short-term immunity from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in high-risk populations, such as people with diabetes and the elderly; however, data on their efficacy in these populations are limited. We demonstrate that prophylactic mAb treatment blocks viral replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts in aged, type 2 diabetic rhesus macaques. mAb infusion dramatically curtails severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated stimulation of interferon-induced chemokines and T cell activation, significantly reducing development of interstitial pneumonia. Furthermore, mAb infusion significantly dampens the greater than 3-fold increase in SARS-CoV-2-induced effector CD4 T cell influx into the cerebrospinal fluid. Our data show that neutralizing mAbs administered preventatively to high-risk populations may mitigate the adverse inflammatory consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure.
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Verma, Anil; Hawes, Chase E.; Lakshmanappa, Yashavanth Shaan; Roh, Jamin W.; Schmidt, Brian A.; Dutra, Joseph; Louie, William; Liu, Hongwei; Ma, Zhong Min; Watanabe, Jennifer K.; Usachenko, Jodie L.; Immareddy, Ramya; Sammak, Rebecca L.; Pollard, Rachel; Reader, J. Rachel; Olstad, Katherine J.; Coffey, Lark L.; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Hartigan-O'Connor, Dennis J.; and Nussenzweig, Michel, "Monoclonal Antibodies Protect Aged Rhesus Macaques From SARS-CoV-2-Induced Immune Activation and Neuroinflammation" (2021). School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications. 18.